How to Fill a Raised Garden Bed: Layers for Success

If you’re diving into gardening with raised beds, understanding how to properly fill them is crucial. Here’s a straightforward guide to setting up your raised garden bed for optimum plant health and yield.

Why Raised Beds?

Raised garden beds offer excellent drainage, soil quality control, and easier access for planting and maintenance. They can also help prevent soil compaction, which is common in traditional gardens due to frequent walking and activity around the plants.

Starting from the Bottom: The Base Layer

Your first layer should focus on drainage and preventing weeds. Start with a layer of cardboard or newspaper. This natural barrier decomposes over time but initially helps to block weeds and grass from coming up into your bed. On top of this, add a layer of gravel or small rocks. This improves drainage, keeping the soil above from becoming waterlogged.

The Middle Layer: Support and Drainage

The next step involves materials that provide both drainage and a bit of nutrient-rich organic matter. Consider using leaves, straw, or grass clippings. These materials help maintain moisture while slowly breaking down to enrich the soil. Another great option for this layer is wood chips or bark, which also decompose over time and improve soil structure.

The Top Layer: Your Growing Medium

This is where your plants will root and grow. For the top layer, use a mix of topsoil, compost, and potting soil. This combination ensures that your plants have the nutrients they need. The topsoil provides bulk and density, the compost offers rich nutrients, and the potting soil ensures lightness and good moisture retention.

Customizing Your Soil

Depending on what you plan to grow, you might need to adjust your soil mixture. For vegetables, ensure your soil is rich in compost to support their nutrient needs. For flowers, you might opt for more potting soil to keep the mix light and aerated.

Filling Your Raised Bed

  1. Measure your bed: Before you start, know the dimensions of your raised bed to estimate how much of each material you'll need.
  2. Layer your materials: Begin with the base layer of cardboard or newspaper, then add your gravel. Next, add your middle layer of organic materials. Finally, fill the top with your soil mixture.
  3. Mix the layers slightly: Gently mix the interface between the middle and top layers to help integrate the organic materials with the soil. This aids in root penetration and moisture movement.
  4. Water each layer: As you add each layer, lightly water it. This helps settle the materials and eliminates air pockets.

raised garden bed soil layers

Raised Bed Maintenance Tips

  • Check drainage: After the first few waterings, check how well water drains through the bed. Adjust by adding more organic matter if the bed drains too slowly.
  • Top up your soil: Each year, add more compost to replenish nutrients used by plants.
  • Rotate crops: Avoid planting the same type of plants in the same spot each year to prevent depleting the soil of specific nutrients and to discourage pests.


Filling your raised garden beds properly is essential for the health of your plants. By constructing your bed with these layers, you ensure that your garden will have good drainage, adequate nutrients, and a solid foundation for whatever you choose to grow.

About Food Independence

At Food Independence, we believe that everyone should have the tools and knowledge to grow their own food sustainably. Whether you’re a beginner gardener or a seasoned green thumb, our resources and products are tailored to enhance your gardening experience. Explore our site for more insights, tips, and products that help you enjoy the independence and satisfaction of cultivating your own garden.

Happy gardening!

how to control cabbage worms

How to Control Those Pesky Cabbage Worms

Cabbage worms are a common nuisance for home gardeners, wreaking havoc on cabbage, broccoli, kale, and other cruciferous vegetables. These pests, which include cabbage loopers and imported cabbage worms, can quickly decimate your crops if left unchecked. However, with a few simple strategies, you can effectively control cabbage worms and protect your harvest.

Here's how:

Identifying Cabbage Worms

Cabbage worms are the larvae of small white butterflies known as cabbage moths. These pests lay their eggs on the leaves of cabbage plants, where the larvae hatch and begin feeding. You can identify cabbage worms by their green color, segmented bodies, and voracious appetite for cabbage leaves. Look for

  • small holes in the leaves
  • dark droppings (frass)
  • chewed edges

as signs of cabbage worm infestation.

Managing Cabbage Worms


One of the simplest and most effective methods for controlling cabbage worms is to hand pick them off your plants. Check your cabbage plants regularly and remove any worms you find by hand. Be sure to dispose of them in a bucket of soapy water or squash them to prevent them from returning to your garden.

Row Covers

Prevent cabbage moths from laying their eggs on your plants by covering them with floating row covers. These lightweight fabrics allow sunlight, water, and air to reach your plants while keeping pests at bay. Be sure to secure the edges of the row covers tightly to prevent moths from gaining access to your crops.

Natural Predators

Encourage natural predators like birds, parasitic wasps, and predatory insects to help control cabbage worms in your garden. Planting flowers such as dill, fennel, and yarrow can attract these beneficial insects to your garden, providing natural pest control.

Biological Controls

Consider introducing biological controls such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a naturally occurring bacterium that targets cabbage worms specifically. Bt is available in various formulations, including sprays and dusts, and is safe to use around pets and beneficial insects.

Companion Planting

Planting aromatic herbs and flowers like thyme, mint, and marigolds around your cabbage plants can help deter cabbage moths and mask the scent of your crops, making them less attractive to pests.

Crop Rotation

Rotate your crops annually to disrupt the life cycle of cabbage worms and reduce the likelihood of infestation. Avoid planting cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables in the same location year after year to prevent the buildup of pests and diseases in the soil.

By implementing these strategies, you can effectively control cabbage worms and protect your cabbage crops from damage. Remember to monitor your plants regularly for signs of infestation and take action promptly to prevent further damage. With a little effort and vigilance, you can enjoy a bountiful harvest of healthy and pest-free cabbage from your garden.

green onions

How to Plant Spring Onions: Home-Gardening Instructions

Spring onions, with their mild and versatile flavor, are a delightful addition to various culinary dishes. Growing these crisp and flavorful onions at home not only ensures a fresh supply but also allows you to experience the joy of cultivating your own produce.

In this guide, we'll walk you through the process of planting spring onions, from selecting the right seeds to caring for them through different growing stages. Whether you're a seasoned gardener or a novice enthusiast, these home-gardening instructions will help you cultivate vibrant and tasty spring onions!

Selecting Spring Onion Seeds

If you’re propagating, go ahead and skip to the next section. Here’s what to consider when picking seeds:

  • Variety: Spring onions come in various varieties, each with its unique flavor profile and growing characteristics. Common varieties include White Lisbon, Tokyo Long White, and Evergreen Bunching.
  • Seed Quality: Opt for high-quality seeds from reputable sources. Check the seed packet for information on germination rates and any specific requirements.
  • Growing Conditions: Choose seeds that are well-suited to your growing conditions, considering factors such as climate, soil type, and available sunlight.
  • Organic Options: If possible, choose organic or heirloom seeds to ensure a more natural and sustainable growing experience.

Planting Spring Onions from Seeds

  • Timing: Spring onions can be planted in early spring or late summer for a fall harvest. Check your local climate and planting zone for the best timing.
  • Prepare the Soil: Choose a sunny location with well-draining soil. Spring onions prefer slightly acidic to neutral soil. Work the soil to a depth of 6-8 inches, removing any debris or rocks.
  • Seed Depth: Plant the seeds about half an inch to an inch deep. Space the rows 12-18 inches apart to allow for proper growth.
  • Watering: Keep the soil consistently moist, especially during germination. Once the spring onions are established, water them regularly, ensuring the soil remains consistently damp.
  • Thin Seedlings: When the seedlings reach a height of 2-3 inches, thin them to provide adequate space for growth. Space the seedlings 2-3 inches apart within the row.

Propagating Green Onions from Scraps

One of the most exciting aspects of growing spring onions is the ability to propagate them from kitchen scraps! It’s a lot easier than you might think.

  • Select Healthy Scraps
      • Save the root ends of green onions after use. Choose scraps with intact roots and place them in a glass with enough water to cover the roots.
  • Place in Water
      • Position the glass on a sunny windowsill, allowing the green onion scraps to receive indirect sunlight. Change the water regularly, and you'll notice new green growth within a few days.
  • Transplanting
    • Once the green shoots have reached a suitable height (around 4-6 inches), transplant them into soil. Bury the roots, leaving the green shoots above the soil line.
  1. Seedling Stage
    • The seedlings will continue to grow, forming thin green shoots. At this stage, thin out the seedlings to ensure proper spacing.
  2. Bulb Formation
    • As the spring onions mature, they will start to form bulbs at the base. This process takes several weeks, and the bulbs will gradually swell in size.
  3. Maturation
    • Spring onions are typically ready for harvest 8-12 weeks after planting, depending on the variety and growing conditions. Harvest when the bulbs reach the desired size.

Caring for Growing Spring Onions

Ensuring the success of your spring onion crop involves ongoing care throughout the growing season. Here are some essential care tips:

  • Watering: Maintain consistent moisture in the soil. Water the spring onions regularly, especially during dry periods. However, avoid waterlogged conditions, as this can lead to root rot.
  • Soil Conditions: Use well-draining, fertile soil for planting. Incorporate organic matter, such as compost, to enrich the soil and provide essential nutrients.

The Growing Stages of Spring Onions

Understanding the different growing stages of spring onions is essential for proper care and maintenance. Here are the key stages to know:


This initial stage occurs when the seeds sprout, usually within 7-14 days after planting. Keep the soil consistently moist during this period.


Apply a balanced fertilizer or compost around the base of the spring onions every 4-6 weeks to provide essential nutrients.


Keep the area around the spring onions free from weeds. Weeds compete for nutrients and can hinder the growth of your crop.

Pest Control

Keep an eye out for pests like onion thrips and aphids. If necessary, use organic insecticides or insecticidal soap to control infestations.


Applying a layer of mulch around the spring onions helps retain moisture, suppress weeds, and regulate soil temperature.

How to Harvest Spring Onions

Knowing when and how to harvest spring onions is crucial for maximizing flavor and tenderness. Follow these guidelines for a successful harvest:

  • Timing: Harvest spring onions when the bulbs reach the desired size, typically 1-1.5 inches in diameter. For green onions, you can start harvesting when the shoots are around 6-8 inches tall.
  • Gentle Pulling: To harvest, gently pull the spring onions from the soil. You can also use a small garden fork to lift the bulbs without damaging the surrounding plants.
  • Continuous Harvest: Spring onions are often harvested continuously. As you remove mature bulbs, new ones will continue to form, allowing for an extended harvest period!

How Long Do Green Onions Take to Grow?

The time it takes for green onions to grow depends on the variety, growing conditions, and the desired size at harvest. Generally, green onions can be ready for harvest in as little as 8-12 weeks after planting.

Get Ready to Garden!

Growing spring onions at home is a rewarding and fun hobby that allows you to enjoy fresh, flavorful produce right from your garden or containers. Whether you choose to propagate green onions from scraps or start from seeds, following these home-gardening instructions will help you cultivate healthy and vibrant spring onions.

Good luck!

Are Coffee Grounds Good for Tomato Plants? Here's What You Need to Know

Coffee grounds are a popular household waste product that many gardeners consider using as a natural fertilizer for their plants. When it comes to tomato plants, you might be wondering, "Are coffee grounds good for tomato plants?"

In this article, we will explore the benefits and potential drawbacks of using coffee grounds in your tomato garden and provide guidance on how often you should apply them.

Are Coffee Grounds Good for Tomato Plants?

Coffee grounds can be beneficial for your tomato plants when used correctly. Here are some reasons why they can be a valuable addition to your gardening routine:

  • Nutrient Boost: Coffee grounds are a source of essential nutrients like nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus, which are vital for healthy plant growth. Nitrogen, in particular, is crucial for leafy green growth, making coffee grounds a suitable choice for tomato plants.
  • Acidic pH: Coffee grounds are slightly acidic, which can be advantageous for tomatoes. They prefer slightly acidic to neutral soil with a pH range of 6.0 to 6.8. Adding coffee grounds can help maintain an optimal pH level for your plants.
  • Organic Matter: Coffee grounds contribute to the organic matter content of the soil, improving soil structure and water retention. This can be especially beneficial if you have sandy soil, which tends to drain quickly.
  • Repelling Pests: Coffee grounds can act as a natural pest repellent. They deter pests like slugs and snails, which can damage tomato plants.
  • Reducing Weeds: Applying a layer of coffee grounds around your tomato plants can help suppress weed growth, reducing competition for nutrients and water.

Do Tomatoes Like Coffee Grounds?

Yes, tomatoes can benefit from the use of coffee grounds if applied correctly. However, it's essential to be mindful of a few considerations:

  • Balanced Use: Coffee grounds should be used in moderation. Too many coffee grounds can make the soil overly acidic, which is not ideal for tomato plants.
  • Composting or Mulching: To prevent the soil from becoming too acidic, it's a good practice to compost coffee grounds or mix them with other compost materials before applying them to your garden. Alternatively, you can use coffee grounds as a mulch, which allows them to break down slowly and release nutrients without drastically affecting the pH.
  • Variety of Plants: While tomatoes can benefit from coffee grounds, not all plants are as tolerant of acidity. Be cautious about using coffee grounds around plants that prefer alkaline soil.
  • Used Grounds: It's best to use used coffee grounds, as they are less acidic than fresh ones. The brewing process reduces the acidity, making them safer for your plants.

How Often Should I Put Coffee Grounds on My Tomato Plants?

The frequency of applying coffee grounds to your tomato plants depends on several factors, including the current soil composition, the specific needs of your plants, and the acidity of the coffee grounds. Here are some guidelines to help you determine how often to use coffee grounds:

  • Start Slow: If you are new to using coffee grounds in your garden, start with a small amount. A thin layer of coffee grounds applied every few months can be a good way to introduce them gradually to your soil.
  • Monitor Soil pH: Regularly test your soil's pH to ensure it remains within the ideal range for tomatoes (6.0 to 6.8). If you notice the pH dropping due to coffee grounds, reduce the frequency of application.
  • Compost or Mulch: Incorporating coffee grounds into your compost pile is an excellent way to balance their acidity and provide a slow-release source of nutrients for your tomato plants. You can also use coffee grounds as a mulch, which breaks down gradually over time.
  • Consider Other Nutrient Sources: Remember that tomatoes need a balanced diet of nutrients. While coffee grounds provide nitrogen, they may not be sufficient for all of your tomato plant's needs. Be sure to use other organic fertilizers or compost to provide a well-rounded nutrient supply.
  • Assess Plant Health: Pay attention to how your tomato plants respond to the coffee ground application. If they appear healthy and vibrant, you are likely using them at an appropriate frequency. If you notice any signs of nutrient deficiency or soil acidity issues, adjust your application accordingly.

In summary, while coffee grounds can be beneficial for tomato plants, it's essential to use them in moderation and consider the specific needs of your garden. By monitoring soil pH, composting or mulching the coffee grounds, and incorporating other nutrient sources, you can successfully integrate coffee grounds into your gardening routine without overdoing it.

Gardening with Coffee Grounds

Coffee grounds can be a valuable addition to your tomato garden when used thoughtfully and in moderation. The nitrogen-rich and slightly acidic properties of coffee grounds can benefit your tomato plants by providing essential nutrients and maintaining the optimal pH level.

To ensure the best results, compost or mulch the coffee grounds and monitor your soil's pH regularly. By following these guidelines, you can enjoy healthier and more productive tomato plants while making the most of your coffee grounds.

Compost Browns & Greens: Getting the Ratio Right

Composting is a wonderful and eco-friendly way to reduce waste, enrich your soil, and create nutrient-rich organic matter for your garden. To achieve successful composting, it's essential to understand the balance between compost browns and greens and get the ratio right.

In this comprehensive guide, we'll explore the world of composting, the roles of compost browns and greens, and provide you with expert tips on achieving the perfect compost ratio. Let's dive into this exciting journey of turning kitchen scraps and yard waste into "black gold" for your garden.


The Fundamentals of Composting

Composting is the natural process of breaking down organic materials into a nutrient-rich soil conditioner. When you compost, you create an environment where beneficial microorganisms, like bacteria and fungi, work together to decompose organic matter. These microorganisms require a balanced diet of compost greens and browns to thrive and efficiently break down your materials.


Let's start by defining what compost browns and greens are and their respective roles in the composting process.

Compost Browns

Compost browns are materials rich in carbon. They provide structure and energy to the compost pile. Common compost browns include:


  • Dry Leaves: Fallen leaves from deciduous trees are excellent sources of carbon for your compost. Shred or crumble them for quicker decomposition.
  • Straw or Hay: Straw and hay are often used as carbon-rich "brown" materials in compost piles. They help maintain good aeration and structure.
  • Newspaper: Newspaper, when shredded, is an ideal brown material for composting. Avoid using colored or glossy pages, as they may contain toxins.
  • Cardboard: Cardboard boxes, egg cartons, and other cardboard materials provide carbon and structure to the compost pile.
  • Sawdust: If you have access to untreated wood sawdust, it can be an excellent source of carbon, but it should be used sparingly as it tends to compact.


Compost browns serve as the "skeleton" of your compost pile, creating air pockets for oxygen flow and helping balance the moisture content. They also provide a source of energy for the microorganisms that break down the organic matter.

Compost Greens

Compost greens are materials rich in nitrogen. They are essential for providing protein and nitrogen to the microorganisms, helping them grow and reproduce. Common compost greens include:


  • Kitchen Scraps: Fruit and vegetable scraps, coffee grounds, tea leaves, and eggshells are rich sources of nitrogen from your kitchen.
  • Grass Clippings: Fresh grass clippings are abundant sources of nitrogen. Avoid using grass that has been treated with pesticides.
  • Weeds (before seeding): Young weeds, especially before they go to seed, are high in nitrogen. Be cautious with weeds that have matured and developed seeds, as they may continue growing in your compost pile.
  • Manure: Well-aged animal manure (from herbivores, not carnivores) can be a potent source of nitrogen. Ensure it has been composted or aged properly to eliminate pathogens.
  • Green Garden Trimmings: Prunings, spent plants, and green garden waste can provide nitrogen to the compost pile.


Compost greens are like the "food" for the microorganisms in your compost. They help speed up the decomposition process and heat up the pile. However, too much nitrogen-rich material without enough carbon can lead to a smelly and imbalanced compost pile.

Achieving the Perfect Compost Ratio

The key to successful composting is getting the right ratio of compost greens to browns. Ideally, you should aim for a balanced C:N (Carbon to Nitrogen) ratio of about 25-30:1. Achieving this balance ensures that the microorganisms have enough energy (carbon) and protein (nitrogen) to work harmoniously.

Here are some expert tips to help you achieve the perfect compost ratio:

  • Use the 50/50 Rule: As a general rule of thumb, start with equal parts of compost greens and browns by volume. This 50/50 mix provides an excellent foundation for composting success.
  • Monitor Moisture: Your compost pile should feel as damp as a wrung-out sponge. If it's too wet, add more brown materials to improve aeration and soak up excess moisture. Conversely, if it's too dry, add green materials and water to boost decomposition.
  • Layer Your Materials: To maintain a balanced ratio, layer your materials. Place a layer of browns, followed by a layer of greens, and then another layer of browns. Repeat this process as you add materials to your compost pile.
  • Adjust as Needed: Compost piles are living ecosystems, and their needs may change over time. If your compost pile starts to smell or isn't breaking down as quickly as you'd like, adjust the ratio by adding more of the lacking material. You can also turn the pile to improve aeration and accelerate decomposition.
  • Use a C:N Chart: Consult a C:N ratio chart for various compost materials. This will help you understand the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of different components, making it easier to balance your compost pile.
  • Experiment and Learn: Don't be afraid to experiment with different ratios to see what works best for your specific materials and environment. Over time, you'll become more attuned to the needs of your compost pile.

Brown vs. Green Compost

Understanding the distinctions between brown and green compost materials can help you make informed choices when building your compost pile. Here's a quick summary:


Provide carbon, structure, and energy to the compost pile. They include dry leaves, straw, newspaper, cardboard, and sawdust.


Supply nitrogen, serve as "food" for microorganisms, and accelerate decomposition. They include kitchen scraps, grass clippings, weeds (before seeding), manure, and green garden trimmings.

The balance between these two categories is the key to successful composting. A well-balanced compost pile will result in fertile, crumbly, and dark compost that can enhance your garden's soil structure and fertility.

What Are Browns for Compost?

Compost browns, as we've discussed, are essential carbon-rich materials that provide structure and energy to your compost pile. They help maintain a balanced C:N ratio, ensuring that your microorganisms have enough carbon to offset the nitrogen from greens. Without a proper supply of browns, your compost pile can become too wet, develop odors, and decompose slowly. Compost browns are the "builders" of your compost pile, providing the framework for successful decomposition.

Key Takeaways

Achieving the right balance between compost greens and browns is the cornerstone of effective composting. By understanding the roles of these materials and following expert tips to maintain the perfect compost ratio, you can turn kitchen scraps and yard waste into nutrient-rich compost.

Not only will this benefit your garden, but it also reduces waste and helps protect the environment. So, get started with your compost pile, and remember that the journey to creating "black gold" for your garden begins with mastering the art of composting browns and greens. 

Happy composting!

The Ultimate Guide to Bucket Gardening: Growing Your Dream Garden in Containers

If you have limited outdoor space or dream of creating a portable and versatile garden, bucket gardening is the solution you've been looking for. Whether you're a novice or an experienced gardener, bucket gardening is a fantastic way to cultivate a variety of vegetables, herbs, and flowers in small spaces.

In this comprehensive guide, we'll delve into bucket gardening 101, covering everything from choosing the best soil for container vegetables to creative bucket garden ideas and plans. Let's explore the world of 5-gallon bucket gardens and unlock the potential for a flourishing, space-efficient garden.

Getting Started with Bucket Gardening

Bucket gardening is a convenient and accessible way to garden, and it doesn't require a green thumb or a lot of outdoor space. Here's how to get started:

Select the Right Buckets: Start with 5-gallon buckets, which are readily available and provide enough space for most plants to thrive. Ensure the buckets are clean and have drainage holes at the bottom.

Gather Necessary Supplies: In addition to buckets, you'll need potting soil, seeds or seedlings, and a few gardening tools like a trowel and watering can.

Plan Your Bucket Garden: Consider your available space and the plants you want to grow. Create a layout or plan to make the most of your bucket garden.

Best Soil for Container Vegetables

The soil you use in your bucket garden is crucial for the success of your plants. Here's how to choose the best soil for container vegetables:

Use High-Quality Potting Mix: Opt for a well-draining potting mix that is specifically formulated for containers. This type of soil ensures good aeration, moisture retention, and nutrient availability for your plants.

Avoid Garden Soil: Garden soil is not suitable for container gardening as it can become compacted, leading to poor drainage and root development.

Consider Adding Compost: To enrich the potting mix, incorporate compost, which provides essential nutrients and improves soil structure.

Growing Vegetables in Buckets

Growing vegetables in buckets is a fantastic way to enjoy fresh produce even with limited space. Here are some popular vegetables that thrive in container gardens:

  • Tomatoes: Choose determinate or dwarf tomato varieties, and place a tomato cage or stake in the bucket to support the plants.
  • Peppers: Bell peppers, chili peppers, and sweet peppers can be grown in buckets with well-draining soil.
  • Cucumbers: Compact cucumber varieties, like bush cucumbers, are ideal for bucket gardening. Provide trellis support to encourage vertical growth.
  • Herbs: Herbs like basil, parsley, and mint are excellent choices for buckets. They don't require much space and can be used for culinary delights.
  • Radishes: Radishes are quick-growing and perfectly suited for container gardening. You can plant them in shallow buckets.

5-Gallon Bucket Garden Tips

To make your 5-gallon bucket garden a success, consider these tips:

  • Proper Drainage: Ensure your buckets have drainage holes at the bottom to prevent waterlogged soil, which can lead to root rot.
  • Watering: Container gardens require more frequent watering than traditional gardens. Check the moisture level regularly and water when the top inch of soil feels dry.
  • Sunlight: Place your buckets in a location that receives adequate sunlight for your chosen plants. Most vegetables need at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight per day.
  • Fertilize Regularly: Container plants benefit from regular fertilization. Use a balanced, water-soluble fertilizer to provide essential nutrients.
  • Pruning and Training: Some plants, like tomatoes and cucumbers, may require pruning and training to encourage upward growth and reduce crowding.

Creative Bucket Garden Ideas

Bucket gardening doesn't have to be limited to a few plain containers. Get creative with your gardening space by exploring these ideas:

  • Vertical Garden: Hang buckets on a sturdy trellis or wall to create a stunning vertical garden.
  • Colorful Planters: Paint your buckets with vibrant colors or designs to add a pop of personality to your garden.
  • Tiered Garden: Stack buckets at varying heights to create a tiered garden display.
  • Herb Tower: Stack several buckets, each with a different herb, to create a convenient and visually appealing herb tower.
  • Recycled Buckets: Upcycle old buckets or containers for an eco-friendly and unique garden.

Bucket Garden Plans

If you're looking for inspiration, consider the following bucket garden plans:

  • The Salad Bucket: Plant lettuce, cherry tomatoes, and herbs in separate buckets, and enjoy fresh salads all season.
  • Salsa Garden: Grow tomatoes, peppers, and cilantro in your buckets to create the perfect salsa garden.
  • Berry Bucket: Plant strawberries or blueberries in a 5-gallon bucket for a delicious berry garden.
  • Container Flower Garden: Use buckets to cultivate colorful flowers and create a vibrant container garden.

Happy Gardening From Food Independence

Bucket gardening is a versatile and practical way to cultivate a wide variety of plants, even if you have limited outdoor space. With the right buckets, soil, and a little creativity, you can transform your small patio, balcony, or even a sunny windowsill into a lush garden.

Whether you're growing vegetables, herbs, or flowers, bucket gardening is a rewarding and space-efficient solution for green thumbs of all levels. Now that you've explored the ins and outs of bucket gardening 101, it's time to roll up your sleeves and start your own container garden. 

Happy gardening!

How to Start Canning Your Own Vegetables: A Beginner's Guide

Canning is a time-tested food preservation method that allows you to savor the flavors of your favorite vegetables long after the harvest season has passed. If you're a newbie to canning, fear not! In this comprehensive guide, we'll take you through the basics of how to start canning your own vegetables. From understanding the process to the equipment you need, we've got you covered. So, let's dive into the world of canning for beginners and discover how to can your own food.

What is Canning?

Canning is a food preservation technique that involves sealing food in airtight containers, typically jars, to prevent spoilage and extend their shelf life. The process effectively kills bacteria, yeast, and molds that can cause food to spoil, making it safe to store for an extended period.

How Does Canning Work?

Canning works through a combination of heat and airtight sealing. The basic steps of the canning process are as follows:

Preparation: Start by cleaning and chopping your vegetables. Ensure all equipment is clean and in good condition.

Filling: Pack the prepared vegetables into canning jars, leaving some space at the top for expansion. You can use various canning methods, such as hot water bath canning for high-acid foods (like tomatoes) and pressure canning for low-acid foods (like beans).

Heat Processing: After sealing the jars with lids and screw bands, the jars are placed in boiling water or a pressure canner. This heat processing step kills any microorganisms that can cause spoilage and creates a vacuum seal when the jars cool.

Cooling: Allow the jars to cool slowly, which causes the lids to seal tightly. You'll often hear a satisfying "pop" as the vacuum seal forms.

Storage: Once the jars have cooled and sealed properly, store them in a cool, dark place.

What Do I Need to Can Food?

Before you can start canning, it's essential to gather the necessary equipment and ingredients. Here's a list of items you'll need to get started:

Canning Jars: Mason jars or canning jars come in various sizes. Choose jars suitable for your vegetable quantities.

Lids and Screw Bands: These are used to seal the jars. Lids should be new or in excellent condition to ensure a proper seal.

Canning Pot or Pressure Canner: The type of canner you need depends on the acidity of the food you're canning. High-acid foods, such as tomatoes, can be processed in a hot water bath canner, while low-acid foods like vegetables require a pressure canner.

Canning Rack: A rack is used to keep the jars off the bottom of the canner to prevent them from cracking during the heat processing.

Jar Lifter: A jar lifter is used to safely lower and lift jars in and out of the hot water or pressure canner.

Funnel: A funnel helps you pack vegetables into jars without making a mess.

Bubble Remover and Headspace Tool: Help ensure the proper amount of headspace in the jars and remove air bubbles for a reliable seal.

Clean Towels and Cloths: Essential for wiping the jar rims to ensure a clean seal.

Vinegar and Water: You may need vinegar for some canning recipes, and water is used for the hot water bath canner.

Canning Recipes: Follow reliable canning recipes for specific vegetables to ensure safety and quality.

Canning for Beginners

Canning can seem daunting for beginners, but with the right knowledge and a little practice, you'll become a pro in no time. Here are some tips to help you get started:

Start with High-Acid Foods: If you're new to canning, it's a good idea to begin with high-acid foods like tomatoes or pickles. These are more forgiving and suitable for water bath canning.

Follow Trusted Recipes: Use reliable canning recipes from trusted sources like the USDA or the Ball Blue Book. These recipes have been tested for safety.

Safety First: Pay careful attention to hygiene and food safety. Always use clean jars, lids, and utensils. Be sure to process jars for the recommended time to kill harmful microorganisms.

Know Your Altitude: The altitude at which you live can affect the canning process. Be aware of your altitude and adjust your canning times and pressures accordingly.

Be Patient: Canning can take some time, but the end result is worth it. Don't rush the process.

Canning Vegetables for Beginners

Canning vegetables is a great way to enjoy the bounty of your garden or local farmer's market year-round.

Here's a simple recipe for canning green beans:


Fresh green beans


Salt (optional)


  1. Wash and trim the green beans, removing any stems and strings.


  1. Blanch the beans in boiling water for 2-3 minutes, then immediately transfer them to ice water to stop the cooking process.


  1. Pack the blanched beans into sterilized canning jars, leaving 1 inch of headspace at the top.


  1. If desired, add 1/2 teaspoon of salt to each pint jar (optional).


  1. Pour boiling water over the beans, leaving 1 inch of headspace.


  1. Remove air bubbles using a bubble remover tool.


  1. Wipe the jar rims clean and place the sterilized lids and screw bands on the jars.


  1. Process the jars in a pressure canner at the recommended pressure (typically 11 pounds of pressure) for the specified time (usually around 20-25 minutes for pints).


  1. After processing, let the jars cool, and listen for the telltale "pop" as the lids seal.


  1. Store the sealed jars in a cool, dark place.

Your Canning Journey

Canning your own veggies is a rewarding and sustainable way to preserve the flavors of the harvest season. With this beginner's guide, you've learned the basics of how to start canning, what you need to get started, and essential tips for successful canning. As you gain experience, you can expand your repertoire to include various vegetables, fruits, and even homemade jams and jellies.

So, roll up your sleeves, gather your ingredients, and start your journey into the world of canning – it's a skill that will serve you well for years to come. Happy canning!

What is the hardest food to grow?

Growing your own food is a great way to save money, eat healthier, and connect with nature. However, not all foods are created equal when it comes to difficulty of growth. Some foods are relatively easy to grow, while others can be quite challenging.

In this article, we will discuss some of the hardest foods to grow. We will also provide tips on how to increase your chances of success if you decide to try to grow these challenging crops.

The Hardest Foods to Grow

The hardest foods to grow vary depending on your climate and growing conditions. However, some of the most challenging crops include:


Artichokes require a long growing season and cool, moist soil. They are also susceptible to pests and diseases.


Cauliflower is another crop that requires a long growing season and cool, moist soil. It is also sensitive to temperature fluctuations.


Celery is a finicky crop that requires a lot of water and nutrients. It is also susceptible to pests and diseases.


Eggplant is a warm-season crop that requires full sun and well-drained soil. It is also susceptible to pests and diseases.


Ginger is a tropical plant that requires warm, humid conditions. It is also difficult to transplant.


Kale is a cool-season crop that requires full sun and well-drained soil. However, it is susceptible to pests and diseases.


Lettuce is a cool-season crop that requires full sun and well-drained soil. It is also susceptible to pests and diseases.


Onions are a cool-season crop that requires full sun and well-drained soil. They are also susceptible to pests and diseases.


Peas are a cool-season crop that requires full sun and well-drained soil. They are also susceptible to pests and diseases.


Potatoes are a cool-season crop that requires full sun and well-drained soil. They are also susceptible to pests and diseases.

Sweet Potatoes

Sweet Potatoes are a warm-season crop that requires full sun and well-drained soil. They are also susceptible to pests and diseases.


Tomatoes are a warm-season crop that requires full sun and well-drained soil. They are also susceptible to pests and diseases.


Wasabi is a very difficult crop to grow. It requires cool, clear water and very specific soil conditions. It is also difficult to harvest and process.

Tips for Growing Difficult Foods

If you are determined to grow some of the hardest foods, there are a few things you can do to increase your chances of success:

Choose the right variety

There are many different varieties of each food crop. Some varieties are more suited to certain climates and growing conditions than others. Do some research to find varieties that are known to be successful in your area.

Start with seedlings

Starting with seedlings can give you a head start on the growing season. Seedlings are also more likely to survive than seeds that are planted directly in the ground.

Provide the right conditions

Each food crop has specific requirements for water, sunlight, and nutrients. Make sure you provide the right conditions for your crops to thrive.

Protect from pests and diseases

All food crops are susceptible to pests and diseases. Take steps to protect your crops from these problems.

Be patient

Growing difficult foods takes time and patience. Don't get discouraged if you don't have success right away. Keep trying and you will eventually be rewarded with a bountiful harvest.

Growing your own food can be a rewarding experience, but it is important to choose crops that are suited to your climate and growing conditions. If you are willing to put in the time and effort, you can even grow some of the hardest foods. Make sure to check out our two day Food Independence Summit to learn more about growing your own food! 

Is Home Grown Food Better For You?

Growing your own food is a great way to save money, eat healthier, and connect with nature. But is home grown food actually better for you than store-bought food?

Is Home-Grown Food More Nutritious?

There is some evidence to suggest that home grown food may be more nutritious than store-bought food. For example, a study published in the journal "Nature" found that home grown tomatoes had higher levels of antioxidants than store-bought tomatoes. Another study published in the journal "Food Science & Nutrition" found that home grown strawberries had higher levels of vitamin C than store-bought strawberries.

Is Home-Grown Food Safer?

In addition to being more nutritious, home grown food may also be safer than store-bought food. This is because home grown food is not exposed to pesticides and other chemicals that are often used in commercial farming. A study by the Environmental Working Group found that 90% of conventionally grown produce contains at least one pesticide residue. The study also found that children who eat the most conventionally grown produce have higher levels of pesticide residues in their bodies than children who eat the least conventionally grown produce.

Is It Worth the Effort?

Of course, there are also some drawbacks to growing your own food. For example, it can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. It can also be difficult to grow certain crops in certain climates.

But if you are willing to put in the time and effort, growing your own food can be a rewarding experience. And it may even be better for your health.

How to Get Started

If you are interested in growing your own food, there are a few things you can do to get started.

First, you need to choose the right crops for your climate and growing conditions. You can find a list of crops that are suitable for your area by contacting your local extension office.

Once you have chosen your crops, you need to prepare your soil. The soil should be well-drained and free of weeds. You can improve the quality of your soil by adding compost or manure. Once your soil is prepared, you can plant your seeds or seedlings. Be sure to water your plants regularly and fertilize them as needed.

With a little care and attention, you can enjoy the fruits (and vegetables) of your labor.

Here are some additional tips for growing your own food

  • Choose a sunny spot with well-drained soil.
  • Amend the soil with compost or manure before planting.
  • Water your plants regularly, especially during hot, dry weather.
  • Fertilize your plants as needed.
  • Protect your plants from pests and diseases.
  • Harvest your crops when they are ripe.

With a little effort, you can grow your own healthy, delicious food! If looking for more motivation and ways to grow your own food check out our Food Independence Summit happening this June! 

Why is Growing Your Own Food a Good Way to Reduce Waste?

Growing your own food is a great way to reduce waste. When you grow your own food, you are in control of the entire process, from seed to table. This means that you can choose to grow crops that are in season and that are not heavily processed. You can also choose to grow crops that are not sprayed with pesticides or herbicides.

Here are some ways that growing your own food can help to reduce waste

Reduce food waste

When you grow your own food, you are more likely to use the entire plant. You are also less likely to throw away food that is past its prime.

Reduce packaging waste

When you grow your own food, you don't need to buy it from the grocery store, which means you can avoid the packaging waste that comes with store-bought food.

Reduce transportation emissions

When you grow your own food, you don't need to transport it from the farm to the grocery store, which means you can reduce the emissions associated with transportation.

In addition to reducing waste, growing your own food can also save you money. The cost of growing your own food can vary depending on the size of your garden and the types of crops you grow. However, in most cases, the cost of growing your own food is much less than the cost of buying food from the grocery store.

If you are interested in reducing waste and saving money, growing your own food is a great option. There are many resources available to help you get started. You can find books, websites, and even local gardening clubs that can provide you with the information and support you need to grow your own food.

Here are some additional tips for growing your own food:

  • Choose a location that gets plenty of sunlight.
  • Prepare the soil by adding compost or manure.
  • Plant seeds or seedlings according to the instructions on the package.
  • Water your plants regularly.
  • Fertilize your plants as needed.
  • Protect your plants from pests and diseases.
  • Harvest your crops when they are ripe.

With a little planning and effort, you can enjoy the benefits of growing your own food for years to come. If you are looking for extra help on growing your own food visit our two-day summit in June!